Project plans are essential to keeping all things project-related organized and on track. A great project plan will help you kick off your work with all the necessary pieces—from goals and budgets to milestones and communication plans—in one place. Save yourself time (and a few headaches) by creating a work plan that will make your project a success.
A project plan—sometimes called a work plan—is a blueprint of the key elements your team needs to accomplish in order to successfully achieve your project goals. Your project plan should include information about your project schedule, scope, due dates, and deliverables, and it should be built in a platform that everyone on your team can access. By creating your project plan in a work management system, you can plan, track, and report on work—all in the same place.Free cross-functional project template
If you're still unsure about what a project plan is, here's how it differs from other project elements:
A project plan and a work plan are the same thing. Different teams or departments might prefer one term or another—but they both ultimately describe the same thing: a list of big-picture action steps you need to take to hit your project objectives.
A project charter is a tool you can use to get signoff from key stakeholders before getting started on a project. As a result, you should create a project charter before you work on your project plan. A project charter is a simplified version of a project plan—it should only include your project objectives, scope, and responsibilities. Then, once your charter has been approved, you can create a project plan to provide a more in-depth blueprint of the key elements of your project.Read: 3 elements every project charter needs
Your project scope defines the size and boundaries of your project. As part of your project plan, you should outline and share your project scope with all project stakeholders. If you’re ever worried about scope creep, you can refer back to your pre-defined scope within your project plan to get back on track.
To fully flesh out your strategic plan, you should include your project schedule—but your work plan needs more than that. You should also provide direction on other key elements, like stakeholders, goals, and milestones.Read: The quick guide to defining project scope—in 8 steps
Agile project management is a framework to help teams break work into iterative, collaborative components. Agile frameworks are often run in conjunction with scrum and sprint methodologies. Like any project, an Agile team can benefit from having a project plan in place before getting started with their work.Read: Asana for Agile and Scrum
Project plans set the stage for the entire project. Without one, you’re missing the first critical step in the overall project management process. A clear, written project management plan provides direction to all stakeholders, while also keeping everyone accountable. It confirms that you have the resources you need for the project before it actually begins.
A project plan also allows you, as the person in charge of leading execution, to forecast any potential challenges you could run into while the project is still in the planning stages. That way, you can ensure the project will be achievable—or course-correct if necessary. According to a study conducted by the Project Management Institute, there is a strong correlation between project planning and project success—the better your plan, the better your outcome. So, conquering the planning phase also makes for better project efficiency and results.
To create a clear project management plan, you need a way to track all of your moving parts. No matter what type of project you’re planning, every work plan should have:
Goals and project objectives
Scope and budget
Not sure what each of these mean or should look like? Let’s dive into the details:
You’re working on this project plan for a reason—likely to get you, your team, or your company to an end goal. But how will you know if you’ve reached that goal if you have no way of measuring success?
Every project plan should have a clear, desired outcome. Not only does identifying your goals provide a rationale for your project plan, it also keeps everyone on the same page and focused on the results they want to achieve. Moreover, research shows that employees who know how their work is contributing to company objectives are 2X as motivated. Yet only 26% of employees have that clarity. That’s because most goal-setting happens separate from the actual work. By defining your goals within your work plan, you can connect the work your team is doing directly to the project objectives you’re hoping to achieve.
In general, your project goals should be higher-level than your project objectives. When you write your project goals, aim to outline what should happen once your project is successful and how your project aligns with business objectives. The purpose of drafting project objectives, on the other hand, is to focus on the actual, specific deliverables you're going to achieve at the end of your project.
Your project plan provides the direction your team needs to hit your goals, by way of your project objectives. By incorporating your goals directly into your planning documentation, you can keep your project’s North Star on hand. When you’re defining your project scope, or outlining your project schedule, check back on your goals to make sure that work is in favor of your main objectives.Read: How to write an effective project objective, with examples
Once you’ve defined your goals, make sure they’re measurable by setting key success metrics. While your goal serves as the intended result, you need success metrics to let you know whether or not you’re performing on track to achieve that result. The best way to do that is to set SMART goals. With SMART goals, you can make sure your success metrics are clear and measurable, so you can look back at the end of your project and easily tell if you hit them or not.
For example, a goal for an event might be to host an annual 3-day conference for SEO professionals on June 22nd. A success metric for that goal might be having at least 1,000 people attend your conference. It’s both clear and measurable.
Running a project usually means getting collaborators involved in the execution of it. In your project management plan, outline which team members will be a part of the project and what each person’s role will be. This will help you decide who is responsible for each task (something we’ll get to shortly) and let stakeholders know how you expect them to be involved.
During this process, make sure to define the various roles and responsibilities your stakeholders might have. For example, who is directly responsible for the project’s success? Are there any approvers that should be involved before anything is finalized? What cross-functional stakeholders should be included in the project plan? Are there any risk management factors you need to include?
Consider using a system, such as a RACI chart, to help determine who is driving the project forward, who will approve decisions, who will contribute to the project, and who needs to remain informed as the project progresses.
Then, once you’ve outlined all of your roles and stakeholders, make sure to include that documentation in your project plan. Once you finalize your plan, your work plan will become your cross-functional source of truth.Read: 9 strategies for successfully managing multiple projects
Running a project usually costs money. Whether it’s hiring freelancers for content writing or a catering company for an event, you’ll probably be spending some cash.
Since you’ve already defined your goals and stakeholders as part of your project plan, use that information to establish your budget. For example, if this is a cross-functional project involving multiple departments, will the departments be splitting the cost of the project? If you have a specific goal metric like event attendees or new users, does your proposed budget support that endeavor?
By establishing your budget during the project planning phase (and before the spending begins), you can get approval and, once approved, make smart, economical decisions during the implementation phase of your project. Allocating that budget appropriately will also be easier since you’ll already have your goals and stakeholders established as part of your project plan. Planning helps you determine what parts of your project will cost what—leaving no room for surprises later on.
An important part of planning your project is setting milestones, or specific objectives that represent an achievement. Milestones don’t require a start and end date, but hitting one marks a significant accomplishment during your project. They are used to measure progress. For example, let’s say you’re working to develop a new product for your company. Setting a milestone on your project timeline for when the prototype is finalized will help you measure the progress you’ve made so far.
A project deliverable, on the other hand, is what is actually produced once you meet a milestone. In our product development example, we hit a milestone when we produced the deliverable, which was the prototype. If you’re using our free project plan template to get started, you can easily organize your project around deliverables and milestones. That way, everyone on the team has clear visibility into the work within your project scope, and the milestones your team will be working towards.Read: How to set, achieve, and celebrate project milestones
In order to achieve your project goals, you and your stakeholders need clarity on your overall project timeline and schedule. Aligning on the time frame you have can help you better prioritize during strategic planning sessions.
Not all projects will have clear-cut timelines. If you're working on a large project with a few unknown dates, consider creating a project roadmap instead of a full-blown project timeline. That way, you can clarify the order of operations of various tasks without necessarily establishing exact dates.
Once you’ve covered the high-level responsibilities, it’s time to focus some energy on the details. In your work plan template, start by breaking your project into tasks, ensuring no part of the process is skipped. Bigger tasks can even be broken down into smaller subtasks, making them more manageable.
Then, take each task and subtask, and assign it a start date and end date. You’ll begin to visually see everything come together in a cohesive project timeline. Be sure to add stakeholders, mapping out who is doing what by when.
We’ve established that most projects include multiple stakeholders. That means communication styles will vary among them. You have an opportunity to set your expectations up front for this particular project in your project plan. Having a communication plan is essential for making sure everyone understands what’s happening, how the project is progressing, and what’s going on next. And in case a roadblock comes up, you’ll already have a clear communication system in place.
As you’re developing your communication plan, consider the following questions:
How many project-related meetings do you need to have? What are their goals?
How will you manage status updates? Where will you share them?
What tool will you use to manage the project and communicate progress and updates?
Like the other elements of your project plan, make sure your communication plan is easily accessible within your project plan. Stakeholders and cross-functional collaborators should be able to easily find these guidelines during the planning and execution phases of your project.Read: Why a clear communication plan is more important than you think
Next, to help you understand what your project management plan should look like, here are two example plans for marketing and design projects that will guide you during your own project planning.
Let’s say you’re the Content Lead for your company, and it’s your responsibility to create and deliver on a content marketing calendar for all the content that will be published next year. You know your first step is to build your work plan. Here’s what it might look like:
You establish that your goal for creating and executing against your content calendar is to increase engagement by 10%. Your success metrics are the open rate and click through rate on emails, your company’s social media followers, and how your pieces of content rank on search engines.
There will be five people involved in this project.
You, Content Lead: Develop and maintain the calendar
Brandon and Jamie, Writers: Provide outlines and copy for each piece of content
Nate, Editor: Edit and give feedback on content
Paula, Producer: Publish the content once it’s written and edited
Your budget for the project plan and a year’s worth of content is $50,000.
Your first milestone is to finish the content calendar, which shows all topics for the year. The deliverable is a sharable version of the calendar. Both the milestone and the deliverables should be clearly marked on your project schedule.
You’ve determined that your schedule for your content calendar project plan will go as follows:
October 15 - November 1: The research phase to find ideas for topics for content
November 2 - November 30: Establish the topics you’ll write about
December 1 - January 1: Build the calendar
January 1 - December 31: Content will be written by Brandon and Jamie, and edited by Nate, throughout the year
January 16 - December 31: Paula will begin publishing and continue to do so on a rolling basis throughout the year.
You’ll have a kick-off meeting and then monthly update meetings as part of your communication plan. Weekly status updates will be sent on Friday afternoons. All project-related communication will occur within a project management tool.Free editorial calendar template
In this example, your website is finally being updated with a website redesign. (Actually, it’s more like a total overhaul.) This project will require a detailed plan, given its large scope and high expectations from various stakeholders. Here’s what your project plan might look like:
Your work plan’s overall goal is to increase conversions on the company’s website 15% by the end of the year. Your success metrics will be the number of daily visitors who sign up for your free trial and the signup conversion rate.
You, Project Lead: Plan and manage the project
Sophie, UXR: Conduct research and provide insights for each
James and Jenny, Design: Provide new designs for the website
Shelly, Content: Write copy and content for any new components or webpages
Kate, Web Developer: Implement the new website
Rob, Web Developer lead: QA implementation and launch the new website
Emily, Head of Marketing: Provide feedback and approvals for project
The budget for the new website redesign is $30,000.
You’ll reach your first milestone when the research phase is complete and Sophie sends a report with recommendations on how to move forward with design and content (the deliverable).
March - May: Sophie will conduct all necessary research for the website redesign.
May - July: James and Shelly will be simultaneously creating the design and content.
Early August: Kate will launch the new website, with James’s designs and Shelly’s content.
As for the communication plan, a project management tool will be used to keep all tasks, communications, and assets in one place, making them easy to find for all stakeholders. A kick-off meeting will be held before any work begins, and meetings will occur at the end of each milestone. All other communication, including status updates and incoming work requests, will happen in the project management tool as well.Free web design process template
Kerry Hoffman, Senior Project Manager of Marketing Operations at ClassPass, oversees all marketing projects undertaken by the creative, growth, and content teams. Here are her top three strategies for managing project plans:
Identify stakeholders up front: No matter the size of the project, it’s critical to know who the stakeholders are and their role in the project so you ensure you involve the right people at each stage. This will also make the review and approval process clear before the team gets to work.
Agree on how you want to communicate about your project: Establish where and when communication should take place for your project to ensure that key information is captured in the right place so everyone stays aligned.
Be adaptable and learn other people’s working styles: Projects don’t always go according to plan, but by implementing proper integration management you can keep projects running smoothly. Also, find out how project members like to work so you take that into account as you create your plan. It will help things run smoother once you begin executing.
Congratulations—you’re officially a work planning pro. With a few steps, a little bit of time, and a whole lot of organization, you’ve successfully written a project plan.
Moving forward you’ll be able to keep yourself and your team on track, and address challenges early. And by using a project management tool like Asana, you can work through each of the steps of your project plan with confidence.Free cross-functional project template