Program manager vs. project manager: Key differences

Gambar kontributor Tim AsanaTeam Asana
16 April 2024
11 menit baca
facebookx-twitterlinkedin
Cek Templat

Summary

You may know what project management is, but have you ever heard the term program management? While the two sound similar, you might be surprised to learn there’s a lot that sets them apart.

Whether you’re searching for the right role for your team or want to improve your work management processes and methodologies, we’ll help you understand the differences between a program manager vs. project manager. Not only will you learn the responsibilities of each job title and career path, but you’ll also learn which role is right for your team. Now, let’s get into the differences between a single project and a program. 

What is a project vs. a program?

To fully understand the difference between a program manager and a project manager, it’s important to first know the difference between a project vs. a program. In short, projects are temporary endeavors with an end date and are designed to achieve particular milestones,whereas programs are ongoing strategic goals that include various projects under their scope. But there are a few other key differences and similarities to note. 

An easy way to conceptualize the two is to consider the fact that various projects make up the programs in place. This means that each project has specific objectives and milestones that make up broader program objectives and organizational goals. While projects have clear timelines and deliverables, programs consist of long-term business objectives with multiple dependencies. 

Though there are many differences between the two, they do share some similarities. Both a project and a program consist of four components: size, difficulty, relationships, and uncertainty. What’s different is the degree of complexity. Projects tend to be smaller in size and run into less uncertainty, while programs tend to be larger, have many complex relationships between departments, and involve more uncertainty. 

What is a program manager vs. a project manager?

Now that you have a better understanding of the differences between a program and a project, let’s look at how the two roles compare. Learning the differences will help you understand the role of each job title within your team and how you can make improvements in your own role.

Program manager vs. project manager

While a program manager leads long-term program strategy, which consists of multiple different projects, a project manager’s job is to lead individual projects. Here are some additional differences between a program manager and a project manager. 

  • Managing projects: Unlike a project manager, who supervises individual projects, a program manager supervises a group of projects. In other words, they focus on large programs that span a number of small projects. This makes delegating and managing multiple projects a large part of the job. 

  • Managing daily tasks: A project manager’s job, on the other hand, focuses on daily project management duties, which include work coordination, resource management, and timeline tracking. This is often done with the help of project management software

  • Seniority: A program manager often has more seniority than a project manager. While this isn’t the case in every scenario, program managers are most often senior to project managers since they oversee broader strategies.  

  • Responsibilities: Program managers work alongside project managers but may not directly manage them. A great way to help identify roles and responsibilities and prioritize tasks is by using RACI charts

Internal roles: A project manager and a program manager have very different roles, but both are necessary for the success of an organization.

Baca: Manajemen kerja vs manajemen proyek: apa bedanya?

What is a program manager?

As you can see, a program manager handles long-term program strategy and success metrics. Their tasks range from defining success to overseeing collaboration and many things in between. 

A program manager is important when you’re looking to implement programs into your current systems and methodologies, like Agile or Scrum. They can also be helpful for overseeing project managers and connecting day-to-day projects with larger programs. 

Here’s an example of a day in the life of a program manager. 

Your morning will be spent finishing up yearly baseline goals that stem from company-wide OKRs. In the afternoon, you’ll meet with project managers from various departments to ensure projects are on track to meet program goals. You’ll finish the day off with an executive meeting where you’ll be reporting monthly project metrics to leadership. If you have time, you’ll get a head start on the budget report and pricing for next month.

Buat templat peta jalan program

What is a project manager?

A project manager, on the other hand, works on daily projects and tasks. They help keep teams organized and on track, while also helping streamline communication in the workplace

Project managers are great for ensuring goals are met and team members have clear directions. They also work with program managers to ensure projects are hitting target objectives, though most of their work is focused on project tasks. 

Here’s an example of a day in the life of a project manager

You’ll start the day by reviewing the progress of the two projects your team is working on. A deliverable looks overdue, so you connect with the team lead to provide support. In the afternoon, you’ll chat with the program manager to review upcoming projects and make sure they’re on track for monthly goals. You’ll finish the day off by running a post-mortem meeting to review the project your team completed last week before archiving project materials. 

What does a program manager do?

A program manager is a very rewarding role. There are many responsibilities a program manager is in charge of, including big picture initiatives. A program manager handles complex projects that span long periods of time and align with larger company goals and also coordinates project teams and budgeting needs.

Program manager roles and responsibilities

The difference in duties between a program manager and a project manager comes down to who’s focusing on the daily tasks vs. overarching project plans. That said, it’s common for both to collaborate. Let’s dive into some key roles and responsibilities of a program manager. 

Program manager roles and responsibilities

While the roles of a program manager vs. project manager are different, they do share some responsibilities, such as overseeing projects and coordinating communication. Program manager roles and responsibilities vary from company to company, but some of the universal duties include project strategy, quality control, performance reporting, change management, and risk management

A good candidate will have all of these and more, as well as be a good leader who can coordinate with multiple teams. Here are some additional roles and responsibilities of a program manager. 

Implement strategies

Program managers are in charge of coordinating smaller projects with objectives that measure up to company-wide organizational goals. This means working with project managers to ensure specific project goals are being met and bigger picture programs are on track.

Program managers also streamline internal processes and define best practices for a collection of projects. This allows project managers to have clear direction when managing various projects. It also prevents errors due to lack of communication and time spent on work. 

Other strategic duties include coordinating projects with a project manager to make sure deliverables are aligned. 

Oversee collaboration

While project managers tend to focus on introducing collaboration for single projects, a program manager’s job is to make sure collaboration is happening cross-departmentally. While challenging, it is one of the most rewarding parts of the job. 

Program managers also tend to focus on creating program roadmaps for high-level company goals. This is slightly different from a project manager, who will create individual project roadmaps

A program manager may manage collaboration by introducing new tool integrations that streamline communication, such as program management software or team-building games. While different, these methods are designed to encourage teamwork and increase visibility.

Read: 100+ teamwork quotes to motivate and inspire collaboration

Define success metrics

While both a project manager and program manager should be analyzing and reporting on ROI, a program manager is in charge of ensuring that company-wide ROI aligns with high-level objectives. 

This means meeting with project managers to ensure one-off projects are hitting initial goals. Program managers will often be the point of contact for reporting ROI metrics to company executives and overall program performance. 

Skills and experience

A program manager should have a well-rounded skill set and both project management and workflow management experience. Though some professionals formally study program management and receive project management certification, that's not always necessary.

If you're looking to add a program manager to your team, these are the skills to look for and keep in mind.

Program management skills

The top skills that a strong program manager should have include organization, planning, scheduling, program strategy, reporting, proposal writing, and budget planning. This will ultimately depend on the duties your organization is looking for and how they’ll work with any existing team members. 

Beyond any specific skills needed, it’s also important for a program manager to have people skills in a program management role. This will help them coordinate collaboration and inspire teammates to push themselves to do their best. 

Program management experience

A strong program manager will have previous experience in project management or another role focused on managing and organizing projects. 

While the number of years of experience needed varies, the average program manager has around five years of previous experience. This differs from project management, which requires less experience depending on the complexity of the particular job. 

Common challenges

Whether tackling timeframe delays or budgetary issues, program managers have to overcome obstacles just like other roles within a team. In fact, program managers are in a unique position where they must manage expectations from both above and below them.  

Here are some common challenges that program managers often face. 

  • Cross-departmental challenges like unaligned goals and lack of communication can have a negative impact on long-term objectives.   

  • Without direct reports, program managers can face challenges around authority and influence. 

  • With long program timelines, it can be difficult to ensure short-term projects stay on track in order to meet annual goals.

Read: The ultimate guide to program management

What does a project manager do?

A project manager differs from a program manager based on daily tasks, though it is just as rewarding as a program manager role. A project manager’s main responsibility is to translate the program manager’s strategy into individual projects that meet set objectives and milestones. This includes organizing, planning, tracking, and executing work.

Project manager roles and responsibilities

Project managers often work alongside or report to program managers. This is because so much of their job is based on the program strategies put in place. Other duties include assigning project tasks, keeping projects organized, creating timelines, and tracking project success—all of which help projects and teams stay on track in order to meet company goals.

Project manager roles and responsibilities

A project manager’s main role is to help keep teams organized and communication aligned. This keeps deadlines and program-level objectives on track. Other roles and responsibilities include assigning tasks and tracking project progress to ensure deadlines are met. 

Here are some additional responsibilities to consider when weighing the differences between a program manager vs. a project manager.

Coordinate work

Project managers are responsible for assigning project tasks to the right stakeholders and ensuring they have all the information they need to complete the work. This is especially important to avoid wasting time searching for information. It’s also one of the most difficult tasks considering many teams are working virtually and 60% of their time is spent on work coordination instead of actual work. 

Although coordinating between team members can be a difficult task, it can improve productivity and team efficiency if done correctly. This allows your team to focus on the deliverables at hand.

Baca: 12 kiat menjadi lebih produktif hari ini

Organize projects

Project managers are also responsible for organizing projects. Not only does this require connecting with team members, but it also requires managing project information and stakeholder deliverables.

While that may seem easy enough, there’s a lot that goes into effectively organizing projects. Some of the key duties include providing team members with accurate information, keeping deliverables moving forward, and leading team meetings throughout the project lifecycle. 

Track progress

Tracking project progress is another important task that project managers are responsible for. This requires aligning deliverables with task timelines and ensuring they are on pace with project deadlines. 

Progress mapping also requires the task of communicating progress to team members in order to create project scope visibility and improve collaboration. This can be tricky, especially when working virtually, and requires both patience and problem-solving skills. 

Skills and experience

Unlike a program manager, who requires around five years of experience, a project manager doesn’t necessarily need the same amount of experience. The main criteria to look for are organizational skills, communication skills, and work coordination experience. 

Take a look at these project management skills to get a better understanding of the experience needed.

Project management skills

Project management skills are similar to those of program management, with a couple of big differences. Skills such as organization, planning, and scheduling are essential for both roles. The difference between the two is that project managers work on tight deadlines and need to be able to work in a fast-paced environment, whereas program managers don’t work on such concrete timeframes. Because of this, the right person should prefer a fast-working environment. 

Similar to a program manager role, it’s important to continue learning new methods and tools that can help set you apart. Organizations like the Project Management Institute (PMI) offer Project Management Professional (PMP) certification and tools to grow your skill level and learn new methodologies to bring back to your team. 

Project management experience

The necessary experience needed to be a project manager will differ depending on the complexity of the role. Most roles require around two years of experience, though some require little to no experience. 

Just like a program manager, the experience needed will depend on what your organization is looking for. Small teams that need help with project planning may be suited for a project manager with little experience, while large teams with complex project deliverables may benefit from a project manager with more experience. 

Common challenges

Unlike a program manager, who faces strategic challenges, a project manager faces daily obstacles like communication and productivity issues. 

Here are some of the biggest challenges project managers face on a daily basis. 

  • If communication is lacking between stakeholders, deliverables could be missed or, worse, done incorrectly.

  • Scope creep can become a challenge if a project is going over the planned timeline. This can happen if there is a lack of organization or the right project management tools aren’t in place. 

  • Lack of success metrics can be a challenge when tracking goals and opportunities.

Baca: Apa saja manfaat manajemen proyek?

Which role is right for your team?

While project managers are essential for executing projects and managing team workload and communication, program managers are also essential to a successful project strategy. Let’s look at ways you can determine which role is right for your team.

What role is right for your team: Program manager vs project manager?

Consider areas that need improvement, then weigh whether a project manager or program manager is the best fit for the job. It’s also helpful to evaluate whether or not your current job titles are being utilized correctly. In many cases, project managers take on program manager responsibilities. This can lead to burnout and more errors within individual projects. You can also look to company-wide OKRs to get an idea of which role aligns most closely with long-term objectives. 

Here are some example scenarios your team may be facing and how to determine which role can help solve each. 

Scenario 1: Is your team meeting deadlines but struggling to measure performance and meet company objectives?

  • Solution: A program manager can set performance metrics and strategize ways smaller project goals can measure up to company-wide objectives. 

Scenario 2: Is your team struggling to meet deadlines and feeling overwhelmed by the tasks on their plate?

  • Solution: A project manager can oversee deadlines and team workloads to ensure end dates are met and communication is clear. 

Scenario 3: Is your organization aiming for huge growth but struggling with both meeting deliverables and measuring performance? 

  • Solution: It may be beneficial to add both a program manager and a project manager to your team. The program manager will be able to help strategize long-term objectives and help projects meet those goals. A project manager will help with the daily management of timelines, deliverables, and team communication. 

Teams need project and program managers

Both project managers and program managers are essential parts of any high-performing team. While they both manage projects in one way or another, each one brings a different perspective to daily operations. After all, we could all use a little more help managing work and strategy.

Read: Project administrator: 4 roles in the project lifecycleBuat templat peta jalan program

FAQ: Program manager vs project manager

What are the key differences between a program manager’s job and a project manager?

  • Job titles: Program managers oversee programs, while project managers oversee projects.

  • Career path: Program managers often have more seniority and 5+ years of experience, while project management positions may require less experience depending on complexity.

  • Methodologies: Program managers implement program-level methodologies like Agile or Scrum, while project managers use tools for specific projects.

  • Salary: The average salary for program managers is higher than for project managers.

  • Education: Program managers may have a Bachelor's degree or business administration background, while it's not always required for project managers.

  • Focus: Program managers focus on long-term strategic goals and delegate projects, while project managers focus on executing projects and day-to-day tasks.

  • Scope: Program managers oversee a portfolio of projects, while project managers handle single projects.

Is program manager higher than the project manager?

Yes, a program manager is typically higher than a project manager in an organization's hierarchy. Program managers often have more seniority and oversee multiple projects, while project managers focus on individual projects.

Who gets paid more, project manager or program manager?

Program managers generally earn a higher average salary compared to project managers. This is because program managers have more responsibilities, oversee larger initiatives, like portfolio management, and often possess more extensive experience in project management.

Is program manager a promotion from project manager?

Yes, becoming a program manager is often considered a promotion from a project manager role. As professionals gain experience and demonstrate their ability to manage multiple projects successfully, they may advance into a program management position.

What are the 3 concepts of a program manager?

The three key concepts of a program manager are:

1. Strategic alignment: Program managers ensure that all projects within a program align with the organization's strategic goals and objectives.

2. Cross-functional coordination: Program managers facilitate collaboration and communication across various departments and teams to achieve project success.

3. Benefits realization: Program managers focus on delivering the intended benefits and outcomes of the program, ensuring that the organization realizes the expected value from the initiative.

Sumber daya terkait

Templat

Discovery creative production template