Your project deadline is quickly approaching, and after several rounds of analysis you realize that your team won’t be able to hit the project objectives at the current rate. As a project manager, this can be a stressful scenario to encounter.
Luckily, there are a few project management schedule compression techniques that you can use. In this article, we discuss fast tracking and crashing, and when to use them to compress your project timeline.
Fast tracking is a common project management schedule compressing technique that reworks project tasks so that some tasks are completed simultaneously, rather than sequentially. You can only fast track a project if there are no dependencies between the tasks that still need to be completed.
To visualize this, imagine a Gantt chart with two tasks: one of them is in progress, and the other is not set to start until after the previous one is completed. Fast tracking moves the second task so it is running directly parallel to the first so both tasks are being completed at the same time. It’s important to note that this can only be done if the second task is not dependent on the first.
Use the fast tracking technique when a project is at risk of not being completed within the deadline.참고: 일반적인 프로젝트 리스크 7가지 및 예방법
Project crashing is a schedule compression technique in which you bring in additional resources to complete two tasks simultaneously. The Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK® Guide) defines the crashing technique as a way to shorten your project schedule for the least incremental cost. The least incremental cost is how much it would cost to add one additional unit of product being produced. This can be challenging to measure in an industry like software development, but can be easily tracked in production related industries such as manufacturing.크리티컬 패스 분석법 템플릿 만들기
These project schedule compression techniques are commonly used when a project is not on track to meet a deadline. Using both fast tracking and crashing simultaneously can expedite your project delivery.
Though using both techniques together is the best way to expedite project delivery, you can also use only one technique if necessary. For example, if you don’t have the budget to hire more team members, project crashing may not be possible. Your team may have to resort to working double time or pulling team members from other teams for fast tracking.참고: 팀의 영향력을 극대화하기 위한 리소스 평준화
If you're in a crunch and need to compress your project timeline, here are the basic steps you'll need to take.
Before you can condense your project timeline, it's important to identify how your project is progressing in its current state. Here are a few questions that you should answer as project manager:
How much time needs to be saved? Identifying how much time needs to be saved can help you determine how little (or how much) you need to fast track and crash your project timeline.
Are there any tasks on the critical path that cannot be overlapped? Keep the tasks on the critical path in one track, but consider rescheduling any other tasks that aren't dependent on the critical path so they’re worked on simultaneously.
Are there any additional resources available for me to use? Based on your resource management plan, do you have any additional resources available? This could mean additional room in the budget to hire external support or additional team members to lend a hand.
Example of a project before fast tracking:
A design team is working on a brand redesign project. In their initial timeline, designers were set to refresh different assets one after the other as soon as the new brand guidelines were established. After looking at the timeline in their project management tool, the team reschedules designers to work simultaneously to refresh branded assets so that the project takes less time.
Based on the needs that you identified in the previous step, reconfigure your project schedule so it fits your compressed timeline.
To visualize this process, use a Gantt chart. A Gantt chart is a horizontal bar chart used to illustrate the timeline of different tasks in a project. In one line of tasks, you can show the critical path activities that need to be done, and in a separate but parallel line of tasks, show all of the other items that need to be completed.
Visualizing the project is a simple way to alert project stakeholders about changes in the timeline, and also show who is doing what by when.
Before fast tracking:
After fast tracking:
With your fast-tracked project now underway, it's time to monitor performance. If you added additional team members to compress the project timeline, ensure that they're aware of the current project scope, schedule, and duration. Monitor performance to ensure that the quality of the work is still up to your project team's standards. Take the time to regularly check in with deliverables and tasks to ensure the project is still up to your expectations.
In addition to evaluating the quality of work, monitor your project cost. The most common tradeoff of the crashing technique is the additional cost. The main goal of using the crashing technique is to use the smallest amount of budget possible, but still make your deadline. If you notice that your project cost is quickly increasing, scale back as much as you can to stay within the confines of your project scope.참고: 범위 변동의 7가지 주요 원인 및 방지책
While nobody plans for a compressed project, it's important to keep tabs on the things that went well and what you can improve for the next project. Hosting a post mortem meeting after the fact can help you identify ways to avoid having to fast track or crash your next project.
Here are a few questions that you can ask:
What went right during this project?
What went wrong during this project?
Were there any aspects of the project that took longer than expected?
What was the biggest challenge you faced during this project?
Although they are common project management techniques to keep your project duration within deadlines, fast tracking and crashing projects should not be the norm. These techniques can be helpful in a pinch, but they do come with a few downsides, including:
By nature of how fast tracking works, it's much more likely that your team will be spread thin.
Team members anticipate taking on a certain amount of tasks in the beginning of the project, but as you fast track, they may have to take on additional and unexpected work.This in turn can increase the risk of burnout.
One way to prevent this from happening is to use a project management tool that makes it easy to see and track what's on your team's plate. Using work management software that identifies your team’s workload can help you visualize who is available, and who needs help getting work done.
The goal of project crashing is to bring in additional resources so you can move more quickly to hit your deadline. This typically means increased costs as you are bringing on additional headcount for the team. While the goal of crashing is to use the least incremental cost possible, it’s still likely that those additional costs can push your project over budget.
An easy way to prevent a project from going over budget is to include budget updates in regular status updates. This keeps both project managers, and any stakeholders aware of any budget constraints as they happen.
With multiple tasks happening simultaneously, it can become a challenge for project managers to keep tabs on all of the project deliverables that are being created concurrently. Depending on the resources you have and your team's bandwidth, the quality of work can drop just by the nature of moving more quickly.
To counteract this, set aside some resources specifically for quality assurance. Adding in an extra layer of review can prevent lower quality work from being produced.
Fast tracking and crashing can help your teams hit their projects on time, but regardless of strategy, it’s important for everybody to stay on the same page in terms of tasks and timeline. The best way to do that is with a work management tool, like Asana. Asana helps teams work together in one shared space so they can immediately identify what they need to do, what’s a priority, and when work needs to be done.크리티컬 패스 분석법 템플릿 만들기